Alternative Healthcare Facilities: Architects Mobilize their Creativity in Fight against COVID-19

As the healthcare infrastructure is becoming overwhelmed and hospitals around the world are reaching their capacities, new alternative possibilities are emerging. In response to bed shortage and facility saturation, architects around the world are taking action, in the on-going fight against the coronavirus. Focusing their knowhow to find fast and efficient design solutions that can be implemented anywhere, they are proposing flexible, fast assembled, mobile, and simple structures. With a very tight timetable, some projects are already implemented and in service, while others remain on a conceptual level, waiting to be adopted.

Courtesy of JUPE HealthCourtesy of Opposite OfficeCURA. Image Courtesy of CURA/ CRA-Carlo Ratti Associati with Italo RotaCourtesy of WTA+ 58

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CURA. Image © Max Tomasinelli

CURA. Image © Max Tomasinelli
 

Although in general, the planning guidelines for new hospitals dictates that 15 to 20 % of spaces should be dedicated to transmittable diseases, most of the facilities around the world couldn’t have anticipated a pandemic of this scale. As a result, Carlo Ratti has converted shipping containers into intensive-care pods, consisting of rapidly mounted, easily movable and safe units. CURA, a safe isolation ward, containing all the medical equipment needed has its first prototype ready. In the Philippines, WTA put in place 60 emergency quarantine facilities, repurposing one of their pavilions into a short-term relief space. The temporary structures made from wood and plastic can be replicated anywhere in order to increase the capacity of hospitals. Other more conceptual approaches include the mobile units designed by the startup JUPE HEALTH, rapidly deployed rest and recovery units, as well as mobile ICUs. At “1/30th the cost of a hospital room“, they are designed and built for doctors by doctors and can be shipped anywhere.

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Courtesy of WTA

Courtesy of WTA
 

On the other hand, In New York, officials, who are anticipating the need of 10 times the existing rooms, are seeking to generate useful spaces for patients by either altering the capacity of existing structures or converting buildings with a different program, like office spaces, stadiums, convention centers, etc. which already have the required basic amenities such as proper HVAC and treatment infrastructure. Moreover, to help with identifying alternative sites suitable for patient care, the American Institute of Architects has released a new design guide from their COVID-19 Task Force, a rapid evaluation to recognize compatible buildings that can support patient care operations. In line with this logic, Opposite Office has proposed to transform the New Berlin airport, under construction since 2006, into a “Superhospital” for coronavirus patients. The adaptive reuse alternative can be implemented in any airport in the world since traffic is nowadays limited and restricted.

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Courtesy of JUPE Health

Courtesy of JUPE Health
 

Furthermore, specialized architectural companies like MASS published guidelines for limiting contagion in COVID-19 Temporary Tent Clinics. Founding their research on past epidemics, MASS explains that the risk of cross-contamination is high when people are located in tight quarters. In order to limit the transmission of diseases, 3 main ideas are to be crucially adopted: limit droplet spread between people, by designing for distances between people of 6’ or more to prevent direct contact with respiratory droplets; mitigate contagion via surfaces, by identifying, cleaning and disinfecting high-touch surfaces; and control for airborne infection by preventing, diluting, and removing contaminated air.

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Courtesy of MASS

Courtesy of MASS
 

In order to highlight different design approaches, inspire creative solutions, and encourage fast responses, we have put together 10 initiatives from architectural platforms, addressing the current problematic, each presenting a novelty and introducing a distinct concept. A spatial protocol, an urban quarantine camp, emergency medical shelters, fast erected hospitals made out of recycled shipping-containers and inflatable fabrics, mobile low-cos facilities, hospital ships, and personal protective spaces for doctors are amongst the functions proposed.

Adapta, a spatial protocol in case of emergencies

50SuperReal

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ADAPTA. Image Courtesy of 50SuperReal

ADAPTA. Image Courtesy of 50SuperReal
 

ADAPTA. Image Courtesy of 50SuperRealADAPTA. Image Courtesy of 50SuperRealADAPTA. Image Courtesy of 50SuperReal+ 58

Through adaptability, prefabrication, optimization, rapidity, re- and up-cycling, as well as “updatability”, Adapta is a spatial protocol based on resilience, on preparation and collaboration beforehand. A globally adaptable design that can be deployed in a crisis, Adapta creates a spatial solution that can be applied anywhere in the world, and in a matter of seconds, reducing the overhead of the human design process to almost zero. Assuming modular pre-existing units, which are ideal for emergency construction, 50SuperReal designed a solution where all additional construction materials are sized to fit in the modular unit itself, in case the building needs to be packed down and moved to a new site.

MOBILE PPS (Personal Protective Space) for Doctors

Plastique Fantastique

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MOBILE PPS (Personal Protective Space) for Doctors. Image Courtesy of Plastique Fantastique

MOBILE PPS (Personal Protective Space) for Doctors. Image Courtesy of Plastique Fantastique
 

MOBILE PPS (Personal Protective Space) for Doctors. Image Courtesy of Plastique FantastiqueMOBILE PPS (Personal Protective Space) for Doctors. Image Courtesy of Plastique FantastiqueMOBILE PPS (Personal Protective Space) for Doctors. Image Courtesy of Plastique Fantastique+ 58

Fighting against COVID-19, doctors might be exposed to the infection when masks and protective suits are in shortage. The Mobile PPS is a space where doctors can treat patients in a protective space. It has constant overpressure, which means, the air flows only towards the outside of the space, not letting the virus coming inside. The air supply is guaranteed by a ventilator located outside or in an extra decontaminated space.

KAKSH

AGX ARCHITECTS

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KAKSH. Image Courtesy of AGX ARCHITECTS

KAKSH. Image Courtesy of AGX ARCHITECTS
 

KAKSH. Image Courtesy of AGX ARCHITECTSKAKSH. Image Courtesy of AGX ARCHITECTSKAKSH. Image Courtesy of AGX ARCHITECTSKAKSH. Image Courtesy of AGX ARCHITECTS+ 58

As India and the world are facing a shortage in healthcare infrastructure, AGX ARCHITECTS is proposing an effective solution that can be manufactured and deployed as soon as possible and has the potential of scaling up. In fact, they created a structure that can act as a quarantine hospital unit or quarantine shelter for an individual. The effectiveness of the design is at less cost, less skillset required, minimum site operations, easily available materials, efficient logistics and minimum installation time. A component system is developed to increase and decrease the size of the unit as per need.

Emergency Modular Hospital

MMW Architects

Emergency Modular Hospital. Image Courtesy of MMW ArchitectsEmergency Modular Hospital. Image Courtesy of MMW ArchitectsEmergency Modular Hospital. Image Courtesy of MMW ArchitectsEmergency Modular Hospital. Image Courtesy of MMW Architects+ 58

As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, MMW Architects have designed an efficient, flexible and affordable modular hospital to increase intensive care capacity on a national- and international level. The construction system of the hospital is based on the use of recycled shipping-containers and inflatable fabrics, assembled in an innovative way to meet the strict requirements for air contamination in hospitals. The system can accommodate both isolators and larger patient rooms based on needs and circumstances. The system is intended to be a contingency hospital that will function as a satellite hospital physically close to a larger hospital.

Hospital ships

Weston Williamson + Partners

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Hospital ships. Image Courtesy of Weston Williamson

Hospital ships. Image Courtesy of Weston Williamson
 

Hospital ships. Image Courtesy of Weston WilliamsonHospital ships. Image Courtesy of Weston WilliamsonHospital ships. Image Courtesy of Weston WilliamsonHospital ships. Image Courtesy of Weston Williamson+ 58

Trying to encourage a global response, Weston Williamson proposes hospital ships, since the container module is ideal for an intensive care bed and medical equipment. With 3,500 containers per vessel, patients would only stay on the ship in the circumstances where there is no place to deploy the containers. The containers are adapted by having one of the steel doors removed and a perspex panel riveted in place. The perspex also has a hit and miss panel for natural ventilation and a built-in air-conditioning unit.

Mobile Hospital

VHL.Architecture

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MOBILE HOSPITAL. Image Courtesy of VHL.Architecture

MOBILE HOSPITAL. Image Courtesy of VHL.Architecture
 

MOBILE HOSPITAL. Image Courtesy of VHL.ArchitectureMOBILE HOSPITAL. Image Courtesy of VHL.ArchitectureMOBILE HOSPITAL. Image Courtesy of VHL.ArchitectureMOBILE HOSPITAL. Image Courtesy of VHL.Architecture+ 58

VHL.Architecture cooperated with Da Nang Architecture University to design a model of Mobile Hospital to help solve the current shortage of beds while ensuring the full functions and facilities of a medical examination and treatment facility. Quickly built for mass production at the factory, with low installation costs, the project takes on the basic 20-foot container and divides it into 3 parts.  The frame is a 30mmX60mm iron box, while the floor is made from light-weight cement panels with standard dimensions. Medical equipment will be placed either in the red box or under the ground to save space.

Field Rescue Center

HAHA Architects Group

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Field Rescue Center. Image Courtesy of HAHA Architects Group

Field Rescue Center. Image Courtesy of HAHA Architects Group
 

Field Rescue Center. Image Courtesy of HAHA Architects GroupField Rescue Center. Image Courtesy of HAHA Architects GroupField Rescue Center. Image Courtesy of HAHA Architects GroupField Rescue Center. Image Courtesy of HAHA Architects Group+ 58

The project of the Field Rescue Center (FRC) was created as a concept of a mobile diagnosis and treatment facility. Its purpose is to be used in times of crisis such as epidemic, pandemic, natural disaster, refugee crisis or humanitarian missions when it is crucial to quickly provide medical help to a vast number of people. The Field Rescue Center is able to fulfill the tasks of a fully functional temporary hospital. Consisting of TEU containers FRC is a mobile structure, easy to transport. Thanks to moving parts and hydraulics the assembly is pretty much self-acting. The modular structure of the facility allows it to be assembled in any configuration, depending on the characteristic of the critical situation and the number of people that seek medical help.

CNC-Medical Emergency Module

KOTKO

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CNC-MEDICAL EMERGENCY MODULE. Image Courtesy of KOTKO

CNC-MEDICAL EMERGENCY MODULE. Image Courtesy of KOTKO
 

CNC-MEDICAL EMERGENCY MODULE. Image Courtesy of KOTKOCNC-MEDICAL EMERGENCY MODULE. Image Courtesy of KOTKOCNC-MEDICAL EMERGENCY MODULE. Image Courtesy of KOTKOCNC-MEDICAL EMERGENCY MODULE. Image Courtesy of KOTKO+ 58

CNC-MEM or Computer Numerical Control used for the creation of a Medical Emergency Module responds to the current COVID-19 crisis, which inspires a design that can be conceptualized and polish, to be open source.Produced with a total of 6 1.22cm X 2.44 cm Plywood Sheets, with few other materials, the intervention can be cut in less than a day and assembled in less than 10 minutes.Every module is able to harbor 1 patient. Its main purpose is to grow, creating a mutable configuration according to the available landscape. The project aims to create a social architecture that provides options for immediate needs.

Folding Emergency Shelter

Gonzalo Guzman

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Folding Emergency Shelter. Image Courtesy of Gonzalo D. Guzman

Folding Emergency Shelter. Image Courtesy of Gonzalo D. Guzman
 

Folding Emergency Shelter. Image Courtesy of Gonzalo D. GuzmanFolding Emergency Shelter. Image Courtesy of Gonzalo D. GuzmanFolding Emergency Shelter. Image Courtesy of Gonzalo D. GuzmanFolding Emergency Shelter. Image Courtesy of Gonzalo D. Guzman+ 58

The main idea was to design a very simple shelter that could be easily transported and easily built. The dimension would permit us to stack many modules and carry them in any truck. Each module consists of a rigid structure of panels that can be folded down and coverage of sailcloth for extra wind and water protection. This module can be adapted to any situation where emergency shelter is needed and the rigid panels can be made of any material according to the availability. The simplicity of the form is in response to the effectiveness and economy.

CAMP-15, an Econo-Sustainable Urban Quarantine Park

INFEKT

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An Econo-Sustainable Urban Quarantine Park. Image Courtesy of INFEKT

An Econo-Sustainable Urban Quarantine Park. Image Courtesy of INFEKT
 

To overcome the economic and social catastrophe of the coronavirus outbreak; sustainable quarantine systems must be adapted to anywhere that is fighting with the virus and still need to provide for its residents. CAMP-15 is a way of quarantine-living, a zone adapted from a park to resident isolation. Park facilities such as showrooms, galleries, restaurants, warehouses, and many open doors areas are transformed into dormitories, offices and leisure areas for mild and no-symptom patients. Under 24-h observation from medics; this zone is where any COVID-19 Positive patient can go and live for 15 days until the quarantine period is over.

We invite you to check out ArchDaily’s coverage related to COVID-19, read our tips and articles on Productivity When Working from Home and learn about technical recommendations for Healthy Design in your future projects. Also, remember to review the latest advice and information on COVID-19 from the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

Hassell Leads Design for Healthcare Precinct and First Medi-Hotel in Western Australia

Hassell has approached health and wellness differently in the newest healthcare facility in Western Australia. With innovation at the core of the architectural concept, the Murdoch Knowledge Health Precinct puts people first, creating a state-of-the-art intervention, a hub for activities and interconnected public spaces.

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Courtesy of Hassell

Courtesy of Hassell

The Murdoch Knowledge Health Precinct, once completed, will generate a wellness community dedicated to treatment, mental health, education, aged care, and all aspects of enhancing livelihoods. In order to decrease traffic and lift the pressure on local primary hospitals, the project “will feature Western Australia’s first ‘Medi-Hotel’, designed to accommodate patients and their transition from treatment to recovery”. Equipped with medical imaging, pathology facilities, a GP super-clinic, and 60 patient rooms, the Medi-Hotel is a pioneering venture.

Designed to enhance fast recovery, the Murdoch Knowledge Health Precinct was led by Hassel, an international design practice with studios in Asia, Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. In fact, the firm was responsible for the architecture, interior design, and landscape master plan of the project.

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Courtesy of Hassell

Courtesy of Hassell

Everything has been designed deliberately to complement each other. This will be more like a wellness community, where patients, staff, and locals will genuinely feel a positive difference by simply being there every day. — Jeff Menkens, Hassell Principal and Health Sector Leader.

The master plan, in addition to the 8,000sqm of medical suites, will include a commercial office building designed for a variety of working types, and a hotel and residential apartment building with a section designed to NDIS Speciality Disability Accommodation standards. Moreover, the precinct puts in place a mental health building with over 40 single-patient rooms, over 175 aged care beds and extensive recreational facilities, as well as an adjacent café, bars, a restaurant, and a supermarket to create a local community.

Taking on various sustainability measures, the project will incorporate energy-efficient systems, solar power, sustainable transport, and waste management. “Sustainability has also been at the forefront of the entire design process, with a whole-of-precinct approach to energy efficiency and environmental response”.

American Architect Michael McKinnell Dies from Coronavirus Complications

 

Michael McKinnell, a British-born American architect, known for his work on the acclaimed Boston’s Brutalist City Hall, and co-founder of the Kallmann McKinnell & Wood architectural design firm, has passed away on March 27, 2020, at the age of 84, from COVID-19-induced pneumonia.

Michael McKinnell graduated from the University of Manchester in 1958 and received a master’s in architecture from Columbia University in 1960. In 1962, the fresh grad along with his professor Gerhard Kallmann won the international contest to design the Boston City Hall. Shortly after, they moved to Boston and established Kallmann McKinnell & Knowles. The brutalist building that celebrated its 50 years last year, became an icon of the city.

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Boston City Hall. Image Courtesy of Utile and Reed Hilderbrand

Boston City Hall. Image Courtesy of Utile and Reed Hilderbrand

Shaping his reputation as an architect and an academic, McKinnell rethought and redesigned the city. His projects include a lot of public and institutional buildings. With his firm, he has designed the Boston’s Hynes Convention Center, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences headquarters in Cambridge, and the Independence Visitor Center in Philadelphia. His interventions also comprise buildings at Ivy League campuses including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Emory. In 1984, Kallmann McKinnell & Wood received the firm of the Year award from the American Institute of Architects, after completing iconic ventures like the Becton, Dickinson and Company headquarters in Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, and Washington University’s School of Business and Public Administration.

Boston City Hall. Image Courtesy of City of Boston - Flickr - CC BY 2.0

Boston City Hall. Image Courtesy of City of Boston – Flickr – CC BY 2.0

On an academic level, McKinnell was a lecturer at several institutions. In fact, he served on the faculty of Harvard’s Graduate School of Design for 25 years and as the Professor of the Practice of Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Moreover, he was also an AIA, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Royal Institute of British Architects fellow. In 1994, he was recognized by the Boston Society of Architects with an Award of Honor, and in 2005, he was appointed to the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts where he served until 2011.

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Boston City Hall. Image Courtesy of Daniel Schwen - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Boston City Hall. Image Courtesy of Daniel Schwen – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

We invite you to check out ArchDaily’s coverage related to COVID-19, read our tips and articles on Productivity When Working from Home and learn about technical recommendations for Healthy Design in your future projects. Also, remember to review the latest advice and information on COVID-19 from the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

World Architecture Festival Still Planned for December and Gives Additional Time to Submit your Entries

World Architecture Festival and World Festival of Interiors: Inside is scheduled for 2 – 4 December, in Lisbon.  Preparations for the event are going ahead in the typical way and architects from across the globe are continuing to submit their online awards entries.

WAF’s event organizers are fully aware that the current situation may be causing disruption to practices across the globe and have therefore amended their awards entries deadlines to the below:

Early-bird entry deadline (saving £75): 4 MAY
Final entry deadline: 14 AUGUST 

“We hope that you and your practice are coping as well as possible in current circumstances and offer our best wishes for a return to calmer times”. Read more from WAF’s Programme Director, Paul Finch.

World Architecture Festival is the only architecture awards where all shortlisted practices present their projects live, in front of festival delegates and the judging panels at the festival in Lisbon.

In addition to individual category winners, international judging panels will choose the best building of the year, the best future project, the best completed landscape and the best interior project.

This year the judging panel will consist of more than 145 judges representing 48+ countries and will be joined by some of the world leading experts. Previous judges at WAF include; Louisa Hutton, David Chipperfield, Li Xiaodong, Manuelle Gautrand and James Timberlake.

The WAF and INSIDE awards are now open for entries in 44 categories across completed buildings, future projects, landscape and interiors.

Find out more about WAF: worldarchitecturefestival.com
Find out more about INSIDE: insidefestival.com

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