• Pendant light fitting in particularly flat design
• Direct light component with edge light and light-guide technology for homogenous light exit
• Indirect light component with Batwing diffuser for a wide-beam light exit
• Also available as version for daisy chaining
• Biodynamic light PULSE VTL (Accessories: Controller PULSE NET required)
• Easy mounting, operating devices integrated into the luminaire
View the catalogGo to the Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co. KG website for more information
• Free and individual interlinking options, using different start, middle and end luminaires, allow individual design of continuous light lines
• Mechanical and electrical connection of the individual modules without tools
• Start luminaire with mains connection
• Up to 18 m on one mains connection
View the catalogGo to the Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co. KG website for more information
Sunlight has proven to be an excellent formgiver, with which architecture can create dynamic environments. The lighting design pioneer William M.C. Lam (1924-2012) emphasized in his book “Sunlighting as Formgiver” that the consideration of daylight is about much more than energy efficiency. Architects have now found numerous ways of implementing sunlight and the questions arises whether a coherent daylight typology could be a valuable target during the design process. However, many daylight analyses focus mainly on energy consumption.
Siobhan Rockcastle and Marilyne Andersen, though, have developed a thrilling qualitative approach atEPFL in Lausanne. Their interest was driven by the spatial and temporal diversity of daylight, introducing a matrix with 10 shades of daylight.
Observing daylight, we encounter the possibility of two extremes: direct sunlight, with clear blue skies and the diffuse cloudy sky as a counterpoint. They both lead to very different feelings and associations. Direct sunlight creates an intense modelling with harsh shadows and its direction during the course of the day has a major impact. Hence, our environment seems to be very diverse with the duality of light and shadow. Simultaneously the brightness of the blue sky has a very activating effect on us – which is why many people spend their holidays at destinations that guarantee sunshine in order to seek happiness.
But when clouds appear and fill the sky, the brightness decreases significantly and we lose the modelling due to the lack of clear shadows. Subsequently we encounter a dimmed situation of uniformity and calm. Such conditions settle our mind because we are not stimulated by diverse and dynamic surroundings.
Within the EPFL research study Siobhan Rockcastle and Marilyne Andersen analysed numerous examples of contemporary architecture with regard to the spatial and temporal variability of daylight. Their conclusion led finally to a typological categorization with 10 categories ranging from direct exaggerated patterns to indirect and diffuse spaces. In this way an analogy occurs to the two extreme weather situations of direct sunlight and cloudy sky. For a brief overview, here we will explore the three major groups of high contrast, medium and low contrast rooms.
A dramatic and even exaggerated daylight pattern design emerges with top- and side-lit spaces likeNorman Foster‘s Kogod courtyard at the Smithsonian Institution, the Seattle Central Library by OMA or theZollverein School by SANAA. The distinct façade structures create intense shadow patterns which move constantly during the day. The large, clear glass elements in the façade create high brightness levels that seem almost as bright as outside. When the façade openings are smaller, a screen façade leads to similar effects but with a finer pattern design. The Louvre Abu Dhabi by Ateliers Jean Nouvel is an excellent example of a screen technique with the characteristic Arabic Mashrabiya.
The medium contrast category uses partially or selectively direct light in combination with indirect daylight. These spaces avoid both extreme contrasts over time and a dull atmosphere. Mies van der Rohe worked with large side-lit glass panes for his Farnsworth House with minimal obstructions in the forms of additions like louvers. The changes over the day are clearly visible, but they stay away from striking shadow patterns. Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals represents a remarkable compromise of selectively direct light. The powerful grazing light effect contributes a characteristic contrast but the pattern does not change that much during the day like at the Seattle Central Library. Daniel Libeskind’s Imperial War Museum is a similar example of playing with lines of daylight in the interior space to build up a certain mood.
The third category comprises modes of indirect diffuse lighting and thereby eliminates intense contrasts and changes over time. Steven Holl’s daylight softly elevates the Chapel of St. Ignatius into a sacred space with several bottle-shaped tubes dispersing the light. A more deliberate solution regarding indirect lighting has emerged with buildings where the entire roof consists of daylight scoop grids against direct sunlight, such as in Renzo Piano’s High Museum in Atlanta. However, the ultimate example of a diffuse atmosphere derives from projects like Shigeru Ban’s Naked House. Here the diffuse walls stretch from ground to ceiling and grant the feeling of floating in a cloud. Due to the large luminous vertical surfaces hardly any shadow is left for modelling.
The value of the daylight typology by Siobhan Rockcastle and Marilyne Andersen with their two factors of contrast and dynamic impact lies in emphasizing daylight as a spatial quality beyond energy-driven metrics. This approach could evolve into a useful classification to reflect the qualities of daylight in daily design work. The three main groups, ranging from direct exaggerated to indirect and diffuse, enable a quick overview for the concept stage, whereas the 10 categories allow a more differentiated evaluation for the advanced design process. Additional simulations with simplified spatial models even open a path to generate year-round renderings in order to study the variability over time in more detail. Thereby, we would speak less about average values but more about the dynamic composition of light and shadow in the space.
Construction is underway in Vancouver for the world’s tallest timber tower by Acton Ostry Architects. The 18-story Brock Commons Student Residence at the University of British Columbia, which began construction in November 2015, will be completed in the summer of 2017. At 53 meters tall, with housing for 404 students, it will be the tallest mass wood hybrid building in the world. The structure’s two freestanding concrete cores will be completed by the end of May, after which, the erection of the mass wood structure will take place.
The $51.5 million project is being completed with Architekten Hermann Kaufmann of Austria as tall wood advisors, Fast + Epp as structural engineers, and GHL Consultants Ltd. as science and building code consultants. Brock Commons demonstrates the benefit of a hybrid design that combines mass wood and concrete, with costs that are comparable to all concrete and steel structures.
The building’s construction is comprised of a one story concrete podium, the two concrete cores currently under construction, and 17 stories of mass timber topped with a prefabricated steel beam and metal deck roof. Lateral stability is provided by the cores, while vertical loads are carried by the timber structure. The building’s glulam columns are fitted with steel connectors that provide a direct load transfer between the columns and a grid of cross laminated timber (CLT) panels, allowing the building to meet new seismic design requirements for the 2015 National Building Code of Canada.
Upon completion of the concrete cores, it is projected that the mass wood hybrid structure and facade will be erected at a rate of at least one floor per week. Speed is being achieved by use of prefabricated materials, including the CLT slab panels, glulam columns, steel connectors, and facade elements. As a proof of concept for the swiftness of construction, a two story project mockup was successfully built in July of last year. The building, which has been designed to target LEED Gold certification, will tap into the UBC district energy system, and by employing carbon-trapping wood construction, it will have a carbon benefit of 2,563 tonnes (the equivalent of taking 490 cars off the road for a year). The hope is that once Brock Commons is completed and able to be studied, British Columbia’s building codes for tall wood structures will be revised and mass wood construction will become more common.