Where we stand: Buildings are infrastructure

Boston Public Library

EAST BOSTON BRANCH LIBRARY

Like our bridges and highways, America’s public buildings are crumbling. Every year that we put off necessary repairs and renovations, we increase costs to taxpayers.  Every time we repeal building codes that require structures to be more secure and resilient, we endanger life and property. Unless we include buildings in the discussion about our nation’s infrastructure renewal, taxpayers will be stuck with decrepit community places, higher bills when repairs come due and structures vulnerable to disasters and threats.

Buildings are just as vital to our safety, security and sustenance as roads, bridges and mass transit systems. In fact, a poll commissioned last year by the American Institute of Architects found that more than 80 percent of Americans see public buildings as part of the nation’s infrastructure. Schools, for example, are the second largest public infrastructure investment after transportation.

As architects and designers, we uphold the following principles:

  • Infrastructure includes the public buildings that house our schools, courts, libraries, community centers and affordable housing. Any conversation about investing in the nation’s infrastructure must include the structures that connect Americans.
  • Buildings must be a part of the infrastructure debate. Nearly all Americans (94%) agree that well-supported and maintained public buildings are important to their communities. Voters must expect policymakers to make the places where they meet, learn and conduct other business a part of any 21st century American infrastructure renewal.
  • New infrastructure must be resilient to a changing climate. The world has changed. Sea levels are rising, disasters and threats are increasing. Public buildings that can mitigate the damage from extreme weather and other threats are not today’s regulatory burdens, but tomorrow’s assets.
  • Building codes are the foundation of a resilient, safe infrastructure. We must fight efforts to weaken building codes in the quest for short-term profits. These efforts endanger life and property and jeopardize the built environment’s ability to withstand extreme weather events, devastating fires, and seismic and geologic events.
  • We’ve built infrastructure before; we can do it again. Existing policies are already in place that can leverage billions of dollars in federal money to spur state and local infrastructure projects like schools, libraries and community centers. The Energy Efficient Commercial tax deduction alone has created millions of jobs and billions of dollars in GDP while helping local governments design buildings that save taxpayers and communities money.
  • Good design yields big returns on infrastructure investment. Studies show that for every dollar spent on buildings to mitigate hazards, society saves $4 in return.  Almost 40 percent of all US energy is consumed by buildings that produce carbon through heating, cooling and lighting and through their construction. Smart design that conserves energy not only reduces demand on our energy infrastructure, but lowers Americans’ tax bills.
  • Infrastructure must secure and unite. Innovative design techniques for public structures like U.S. embassies, promenades and borders can secure our nation’s most important spaces while enabling a free and open society. Every day that America neglects its buildings is another day that future generations are burdened by our failure to plan and design.

Whether we live in big cities or small towns, Americans have the right to quality schools, hospitals and libraries—all the infrastructure that shelter, protect and uplift our communities. The infrastructure we design today must be one that is worthy of passing down to our children tomorrow.

Image credits

Boston Public LibraryRobert Benson Photography

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NCARB Reports Number of Architects Up 10% Compared to a Decade Ago

NCARB Reports Number of Architects Up 10% Compared to a Decade Ago, © <a href=https://www.flickr.com/photos/eager/5347925719'>Flickr user Forgemind ArchiMedia</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>

© Flickr user Forgemind ArchiMedia licensed under CC BY 2.0

The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) has recently released new data surveying the number of licensed architects in the United States. Conducted annually by NCARB, the 2017 Survey of Architectural Registration Boards provides exclusive insight into data from the architectural licensing boards of the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. At first glance, the numbers reflect promising growth for the architecture profession. The number of architects licensed in the U.S. rose to 113,554, according to the survey, which is a 3% increase from 2016 and a 10% increase from the numbers reported a decade ago.

Even more impressive, when you compare the increase in registered architects to the U.S. population, the number of architects licensed has risen over 10% since 2008; while the total U.S. population has risen 8%, according to data from the U.S. Census Bureau. That equates to roughly 1 architect for every 2,900 people in the country. To put this into perspective, a medium-sized architecture firm of 50 people would theoretically have the potential to directly impact 145,000 people in the U.S.

Based on these statistics, one might assume that more architects naturally means more architecture, thus more influence from the profession in general. But that might not be the case. Read on for more data from NCARB‘s report and what it could mean for the profession as a whole.

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Courtesy of NCARB

Courtesy of NCARB

Over the past few years, NCARB has been making an obvious effort to streamline the path to licensure and remove unnecessary barriers. NCARB CEO Michael J. Armstrong believes the numbers in the recent report reflect their efforts. With over 5,200 candidates completing the core education, experience and examination requirements for licensure, this record high might suggest a promising future for the generations to come.

While the numbers indicate an upward trajectory for the profession overall, it’s important to step back and view this assumption from an economic perspective. With a higher supply of architects in the U.S., will this in turn mean less work for architects across the board? Economically speaking, a greater supply generally leads to a lesser demand.

In order to combat this supply and demand, it is important for the architectural profession to begin exploring more innovative ways to practice. The traditional client relationship is evolving in the age of digital media, and perhaps it is time to take advantage of this evolution through investing in new ways to find and secure work. It is an exciting time to be in any creative industry, this report proves that. Find a way to set yourself apart from the crowd–you might even end up making an impact you may not have anticipated was possible.

To learn more about NCARB’s data and the Survey of Architectural Registration Boards, visit the website here.

News via: NCARB

WOHA’s First Office Skyscraper in China Tops Out in Shenzhen

Courtesy of WOHA
Courtesy of WOHA

Architecture is always evolving. The practice and business of architecture are undoubtedly evolving alongside the more obvious technological advances, but what we often forget is that there are no new ideas. When it comes to design, what we see manifested in our daily lives is the result of evolution. And at the root of that design evolution is inspiration.

A new initiative from Gianpiero Venturini and his firm Itinerant Office titled Past, Present, Future aims to open a research path based on the analysis of successful practices in the 21st Century while ultimately providing a new form of inspiration for the next generations of architects and designers. The documentary series begins with a select group of 11 international architects, including Jacob van Rijs, co-founder of MVRDV, Mario Cucinella, and Simone Sfriso, co-founder of TAMassociati. Each architect is featured in three video interviews in which they reveal the methodology behind their designs, the themes and approaches within their architectural practice, and the predictions they have for architecture in the near and distant future.

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Portraits of the Featured Eleven Illustrious Architects © Luca Chiaudano

Portraits of the Featured Eleven Illustrious Architects © Luca Chiaudano

In addition to the website, which launches today, this collection of interviews serves as an exhibition; it was displayed in Kyiv, Ukraine in April, and other iterations are currently being planned. Furthermore, the initiative is a continuous project, with a new set of interviews focusing on architects in Spain, Portugal and France being planned later this year.

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"Past, Present, Future": Leading Dutch and Italian Designers on Being an Architect Yesterday, Today, and Beyond, House of Magic / Mario Cucinella Architects. Image © Moreno Maggi

House of Magic / Mario Cucinella Architects. Image © Moreno Maggi

As the curator of the project, Venturini says that the selection of the first 11 firms and architects “represents the first step of a project based on an Italian/Dutch collaboration. I have involved some of the most interesting names of the two countries, choosing them with regards to their working method and their approach to the profession, as well as the overall organization of the practice.” He also revealed that the main initiative for the project is not to focus on the respective design approaches, but rather focus more on the person behind the iconic designs. “There is a kind of barrier that separates those that, in recent years, we have defined as ‘star architects’—and all the others. They are just people, who are doing really well in their jobs. Through the analysis of the person and their career, we can better understand the approach that characterizes each of these practices.”

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Tianjin Binhai Library / MVRDV + Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute. Image © Osip van Duivenbode

Tianjin Binhai Library / MVRDV + Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute. Image © Osip van Duivenbode

The first focus of this project is the Past. The theme for these videos is the unique conditions and circumstances that led to not just the success of each architect involved, but what led them to choose to study and practice architecture in the first place. This group of interviews includes a revealing account of each architect’s life leading up to the creation of their firm through personal anecdotes.

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Jacob van Rijs of MVRDV. Screenshot via Past, Present, Future

Jacob van Rijs of MVRDV. Screenshot via Past, Present, Future

The second group of videos focuses on the Present for each. In these videos, the architects spend some time introducing the unique characteristics of each studio, revealing common threads in how they work and grow over time. Many of the interviewees elaborate on current projects and fields of research for their respective firms, providing a useful overview of each firm and a glimpse into what exactly makes them successful.

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Courtesy of UNStudio

Courtesy of UNStudio

The final group of videos, of course, focuses on the Future. Rather than talk about the overall course for architecture in the future, the architects discuss what they see as the relevant topics of today and tomorrow. Each architect presents a selection of key concepts that represent their own specific approach while anticipating future trends to help understand architecture in the future. Each interview closes with a piece of advice from the interviewee, addressing the next generation of architects and designers.

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Caroline Bos of UNStudio Screenshot via Past, Present, Future

Caroline Bos of UNStudio Screenshot via Past, Present, Future

Ultimately, there is no design without inspiration. Where do you find yours? Past, Present, Future provides exactly that. Directly from the mouths of some of the most successful architects in Europe, this documentary series serves as a database of useful thoughts on design intended to push the next generations of architects and designers forward in pursuit of the architecture of tomorrow.

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Salam Cardiac Surgery Center / Studio TAMassociati. Image © AKAA / Raul Pantaleo

Salam Cardiac Surgery Center / Studio TAMassociati. Image © AKAA / Raul Pantaleo

Here is the complete list of architects you can see in Past, Present, Future:

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B30 / KAAN Architecten. Image © Karin Borghouts

B30 / KAAN Architecten. Image © Karin Borghouts

You can see all the interviews in the Past, Present, Future project at the official website here.

News via: Itinerant Office

These Time-Lapses Capture the Construction of the 2022 Qatar World Cup Stadiums

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These Time-Lapses Capture the Construction of the 2022 Qatar World Cup Stadiums, via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

As the 2018 World Cup approaches, we architects can already look ahead to the next tournament. The 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar offers the most exciting opportunity in stadium design for decades, with the competition relying on an almost entirely new footballing infrastructure. Several world-renowned designers have submitted proposals, and the following set of newly released time-lapse videos show the progression of each stadium, as we approach four years to the competition’s start. Emphasising the structural shells, the videos highlight a sometimes overlooked facet of stadium design. To materialize the effortless magic of the initial renders – like those produced by Foster + Partners and Zaha Hadid Architects – phenomenal levels of engineering and problem solving are required, and in the early stages of construction, this becomes the visual focal point. Read on to see the beauty of these structural marvels, but be warned – you may develop World Cup fever.

via screenshot from videovia screenshot from videovia screenshot from videovia screenshot from video+ 25

Project: Al Bayt Stadium
Location: Al Khor City
Designer: Dar Al-Handasah
Capacity: 60,000

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via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

Project: Al Wakrah Stadium
Location: Al Wakrah
Designer: Zaha Hadid Architects
Capacity: 40,000

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Courtesy of Supreme Committee for Delivery & Legacy

Courtesy of Supreme Committee for Delivery & Legacy

Project: Al Rayyan Stadium
Location: Al Rayyan Municipality
Designer: Pattern Architects
Capacity: 44,740

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via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

Project: Education City Stadium
Location:
Education City, Al Rayyan Municipality
Designer: DR. Omar Jamal, SENSI Moe and Sons, Dr. Demonichaos (Wareface CO.)
Capacity: 40,000

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via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

Project: Al Thumama Stadium
Location: Doha
Designer: Ibrahim J Aidah
Capacity: 40,000

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via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

Project: Lusail Stadium
Location: Lusail
Designer: Foster + Partners
Capacity: 86,250

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via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

Project: Ras Abu Aboud Stadium
Location: Doha
Designer: Fenwick Iribarren Architects
Capacity: 40,000

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via screenshot from video

via screenshot from video

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Designing for building safety and high performance

By Allison H. Anderson, FAIA

Civic Center in Bay St. Louis

AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA, BAY ST. LOUIS, MS PRIORITIZED REBUILDING CITY INFRASTRUCTURE OUTSIDE OF FLOOD ZONES. THE CITY PLACED CIVIC CENTER ATOP A PARKING GARAGE WITH PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS TO PROVIDE UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER AND RAINWATER CAPTURE.

How you can create a more livable building by understanding your risks and paying attention to details

Building safety is one of the measures of a secure, healthy community and a foundational element to enhance resilience. Building codes were developed to provide minimum standards for public health and safety and have since evolved to address hazards and disasters. However, the limited level of property protection provided by the building code may not address a client’s building performance objectives. After all, the safest, most sustainable, and best performing building is one that doesn’t end up in a landfill.

Understanding potential risks at a project site, selecting appropriate materials, and crafting details that address potential vulnerabilities enhance a building’s resilience and community’s ability to recover from adverse events. Embarking on a new project with safety and performance as top priorities can help buildings and communities thrive.

Know your risk

Understanding risks at a project site is a good place to start, as performance goals should align with the potential hazards that threaten a location. Certain strategies may be useful against more than one type of hazard, but sometimes strategies can conflict with one another. For instance, a continuous load path for hurricane-resistance can also help against lateral movement in earthquake zones, but raising first floor levels against flooding can create a “soft story” prone to collapse in an earthquake.

Architects traditionally analyze site conditions like prevailing winds, presence of water, and orientation to the sun, but now must consider the potential for changes in climate. Community hazard mitigation plans and trustworthy sources for future climate scenarios, such as the US Climate Resilience Toolkit’s Climate Explorer, provide a basis for identifying long-term risks.

Architects can communicate foreseeable hazards to the client, but the client is ultimately responsible for determining building performance goals and defining mission-critical functions. Oftentimes, these goals will mean going beyond the building code. If a building will be occupied during or immediately following a disaster, it may need to meet a higher standard of protection. Additional measures can be taken to reduce a building’s vulnerability if the consequences for interruption are severe economic loss or the failure of an essential service.

Be thoughtful about materials

Materials are critical to occupant comfort and safety, but can also protect the building from damage. Early in the design process, architects can identify appropriate materials that mitigate risks. Examples include:

  • Sea level rise and intense rainfall can cause flooding beyond mapped flood zones. A commercial building might include wet-floodproofing materials that can be easily cleaned, restoring the building to use quickly after inundation.
  • Changes in rainfall patterns may lead to droughts and place more buildings at risk of wildfires. In this situation, a residence could substitute a shingle roof with concrete composite tile to reduce the chance of embers igniting the roof.
  • The number of days with temperatures over 90 degrees is increasing. Outdoor play areas at schools can be designed to reduce the heat island effect and heat gain with permeable paving.

Pay extra attention to details

Careful detailing is necessary for high-performance buildings. A resilient building will have a long service life, excellent environmental separation, low-maintenance cladding, and systems and assemblies that allow for rapid replacement.

Architects are witnesses to the success or failure of building details. Many continue to advance knowledge in the profession regarding adaptation measures to reduce casualties and property damage in hazard events. Research in wind tunnels, fire-safety labs, and debris impact test facilities evaluate promising new technologies, while post-disaster assessments identify the points of failure for structures that could not meet the hazard’s intensity.

Reduce the impact of hazards by paying additional attention to the following building elements:

  • Create a continuous load path to help hold the structural frame together when earthquakes or high winds exert lateral forces on a building. Strong joints between the roof, walls, floors, and foundation connect the frame into a system that resists sliding and overturning.
  • A standard building envelope is designed to improve thermal comfort and prevent moisture transmission, but may not be prepared for extreme temperatures and intensive rainfall events. Prevent thermal bridging, add window shading, provide generous overhangs, and utilize continuous air barriers to combat extreme temperatures and heavy rains.
  • Hurricanes often peel off roof coverings that are inadequately fastened. To avoid this, strengthen roof sheathing and materials, seal the roof deck, and improve flashing.
  • When flood waters meet an obstruction, more damage can occur than if the water could pass through. Flood vents and breakaway walls can prevent structural damage and limit recovery to cleaning up rather than rebuilding.
  • Wildfires can spread through unprotected eaves and soffits. Flat profile soffits with non-combustible materials, fire-suppressing vents, careful joint sealing, and limited overhangs reduce the chance of sparks entering an attic.

Learn more about designing for resilience and receive continuing education credit on AIAU with our Resilience and Adaptation course series. You can also explore AIA Best Practices for information on how to navigate codes and standards.  

Allison H. Anderson, FAIA, is a principal at unabridged Architecture specializing in resilience and climate adaptation. She is a member of the AIA Resilience Education Working Group.

Image credits

Civic Center in Bay St. LouisEugenia Uhl

“Freestanding” Exhibition Shows the Power and Poetry of Sigurd Lewerentz’s Architecture

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"Freestanding" Exhibition Shows the Power and Poetry of Sigurd Lewerentz’s Architecture, © Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu

As part of our 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale coverage, we present Freestanding, an exhibition in the Biennale’s Central Pavilion. Below, the curatorial team describes their contribution in their own words.

Sigurd Lewerentz’s (1885-1975) chapels are marked by an extraordinary imaginative synthesis of northern aesthetic traditions and burial practices in the context of a modernising world. He wrote and spoke little but, in recent years, his work has gripped the imaginations of a generation of architects who look to it for its power, symbolic range, and its poetic, experiential qualities.

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Courtesy of Sigurd Lewerentz Collection, ArkDes

Courtesy of Sigurd Lewerentz Collection, ArkDes

Through archival drawings, new photography, and large-scale interpretative models, Freestanding in FREESPACE unfolds the spatial power of three freestanding canopies from three of Lewerentz’s best known sacred spaces in the form of a three-act play: an inhabitable, sectional scenography and a fabric of experiences that suggest ways in which extra spatial gifts can form the heart of the experience of a place, a ritual, and a landscape.

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© Mikael Olsson

© Mikael Olsson

Freestanding presents and re-presents the canopies of the Chapel of the Resurrection at the Woodland Cemetery (1925), Stockholm, the Chapels of St. Knut and St. Gertrude at the Eastern Cemetery, Malmö (1943), and St. Mark’s Church at Björkhagen, Stockholm (1960). Simple in form, they are central to the ritual meaning of the buildings they correspond to, contributing significantly to the visual image of the churches they accompany.

The three extraneous structures were completed across the span of Lewerentz’s career, and each designed in a different architectural style to one another. Despite this stylistic diversity, they all, in different ways, create places for public life between the scales of the landscape and the interior.

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© Laurian Ghinitoiu

© Laurian Ghinitoiu

Swedish architect Petra Gipp has created three large-scale sectional models which allow for a unique reading of the canopies – how they make a place for people between the breadth of a landscape and the massiveness of a building. Gipp’s models are abstractions, suppressing scale and material in favour of spatial effects.

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© Laurian Ghinitoiu

© Laurian Ghinitoiu

New photographs taken by Swedish artist Mikael Olsson show the three projects as living, contemporary scenographies. In dissecting and rearranging the structures and their surroundings, the photographs reveal new perspectives on their design. The pictures evoke movement and help to reveal how we perceive distance and intimacy through architectural gestures.

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© Mikael Olsson

© Mikael Olsson

A selection of drawings made by the office of Sigurd Lewerentz have never before been shown together. As a sequence, they help to establish the spatial narratives of the canopies, collectively and alone: unique perspectives that show how they mediate their respective landscapes and interiors, alongside plans, elevations and detail drawings that show the diagrammatic composition of these outdoor spaces and their relationship to the main body of the buildings.

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Courtesy of Sigurd Lewerentz Collection, ArkDes

Courtesy of Sigurd Lewerentz Collection, ArkDes

Freestanding, a project by Kieran Long, director of ArkDes, Johan Örn, curator of collections at ArkDes, Petra Gipp, architect, Mikael Olsson, artist, James Taylor-Foster, curator contemporary architecture and design ArkDes, is exhibited as part of FREESPACE in the Central Pavilion of the Giardini della Biennale. 

In 2020, ArkDes will stage the first major exhibition on Sigurd Lewerentz since the 1980s, presenting an in-depth view of the architect’s most well-known buildings while shedding light on projects that have hitherto been overlooked.

Dimensions of Citizenship: The US Pavilion at the 2018 Venice Biennale

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Dimensions of Citizenship: The US Pavilion at the 2018 Venice Biennale, 1. U.S. Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris
1. U.S. Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

As part of our 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale coverage, we present the completed United States Pavilion. To read the initial proposal, refer to our previously published posts, “Curators and Theme Announced for US Pavilion at 2018 Venice Biennale” and “Studio Gang, Diller Scofidio + Renfro Among Exhibitors Selected for US Pavilion at 2018 Venice Biennale

The pavilion representing the United States at this year’s biennale brings together the work of seven different transdisciplinary teams who each prepared an installation addressing the concept of citizenship at a different scale. Entitled Dimensions of Citizenship, the exhibition is intended to challenge the definition and conception of citizenship, examining issues and citing examples on the scale of the citizen, civitas, region, nation, globe, network and cosmos. The pavilion was commissioned on behalf of the US Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs by the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.

Ecological Citizens by SCAPE at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris© Laurian GhinitoiuMEXUS: A Geography of Interdependence by Estudio Teddy Cruz + Fonna Forman at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom HarrisTransit Screening Lounge at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris+ 28

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MEXUS: A Geography of Interdependence by Estudio Teddy Cruz + Fonna Forman at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

MEXUS: A Geography of Interdependence by Estudio Teddy Cruz + Fonna Forman at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

Approaches to these various scales of citizenship include Studio Gang’s approach to the “civitas” scale entitled Stone Stories, which incorporates cobblestones from the historic port of Memphis Landing to present the riverfront site as a place of historical civic memory. Another contribution comprises a visual exploration of the political border between Mexico and the United States by Estudio Teddy Cruz + Fonna Forman that uses watersheds, indigenous lands, ecological corridors, and migratory patterns to argue that the border represents an area of commonality and cooperative opportunity rather than political division. Other contributing teams include Amanda Williams + Andres L. Hernandez, in collaboration with Shani CroweSCAPEDiller Scofidio + RenfroLaura KurganRobert Gerard Pietrusko with Columbia Center for Spatial Research, Keller Easterling with MANY and Design Earth.

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In Plain Sight by Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Laura Kurgan, Robert Gerard Pietrusko with Columbia Center for Spatial Research at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

In Plain Sight by Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Laura Kurgan, Robert Gerard Pietrusko with Columbia Center for Spatial Research at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

The rotunda of the U.S. Pavilion also contains a screening lounge, presenting recent video works that take different approaches to exploring concepts of citizenship, including Afronauts (2014) by Frances Bodomo, Cosmic Generator (2017) by Mika Rottenberg and Exodus (2012) by Mandana Moghaddam.

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Transit Screening Lounge at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

Transit Screening Lounge at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris
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Stone Stories by Studio Gang at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

Stone Stories by Studio Gang at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris
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Cosmorama by Design Earth at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris

Cosmorama by Design Earth at the 2018 U.S. Pavilion. Courtesy of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Chicago.. Image © Tom Harris
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© Laurian Ghinitoiu

© Laurian Ghinitoiu

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